Wednesday, June 20, 2018

"Fille De La Ville" - Vin Bruce

Ervin "Vin" Bruce was a South Louisiana treasure of unparalleled significance. His signing to Columbia Records in the early fifties was positively historical in more ways than one. The first Cajun artist to be marketed to the widespread record buying public by a major record company, his first 1952 single, "Dans La Louisianne", backed with, "Fille De La Ville", was sung purely in French, but, like Harry Choates' "Jole Blon" before it, that didn't keep it from becoming a country music sensation.1 
Après chercher pour cette fille, cette fille de village,
Après chercher pour cette fille qu'aurais pas du s'en aller,
Après chercher pour cette fille, cette fille de village.

Quand tu m'vois après pleurer chere,
Après pleurer pour cette fille qui s'en a été hier,
Elle est la plus belle femme dans l'village,
Mais, j'connais j'va la r'voir une journée.
Vin Bruce
by Jack Vartoogian

Hailing from Bayou Lafourche, below New Orleans, Vin and his peers Leroy Martin, Gene Rodrigue and Dudley Bernard developed their own stripe of Cajun music; an accordion-less string band style that was as much hillbilly as it was French. Vin, along with Tommy Jackson on fiddle, Owen Bradley on piano, Bob Foster on steel guitar, Grady Martin on mandolin, and possibly Ernie Newton on bass, recorded "Fille De La Ville"(#20923) in Nashville in 1952.  Vin's Columbia sides brought that sound to the jukeboxes, airwaves and the Grand Ole Opry. Hank Williams was so endeared to Bruce's music that he invited him to play his public wedding ceremony at New Orleans' Municipal Auditorium.1  

Searching for this girl, this girl of the village,
Searching for this girl, that shouldn't have left,
Searching for this girl, this girl of the village.

When you see me crying dear,
Crying for this girl who was here yesterday,
She is the most beautiful woman in the village,
Well, I know I'll see her again one day.

Vin would continue to record with labels such as Swallow and perform throughout Louisiana. 

  1. Vin Bruce - Dans La Louisianne BCD 16895 AH.  Liner notes.

Release Info:
CO 47686 Fille de la ville | Columbia 20923

CO 47687 Dans la Louisianne | Columbia 20923

Vin Bruce: King of Cajun Music: Dans la Louisianne (Bear Family, 2011)
Vin Bruce: Vintage Cajun Classics of the 1950's (Vintage Masters, 2012)

Friday, June 15, 2018

"Poche Town" - Joe Falcon

Joe Falcon, dubbed “The Accordion King,” helped push the instrument to the peak of its prewar popularity. Although button accordions were available in Louisiana as early as the 1880s, the instrument wasn’t popular until 1925, when the Monarch and Sterling boxes arrived on the scene. Set in C and D, they could be played alongside the open-tuned Cajun fiddle and, with their prodigious volume, they quickly came to dominate the dance music of the fais do do.1    

Oh, promets-moi, joli cœur,

Tu vas jamais m’oublier comme t'as pris, oui, ton cœur,
Tu m'as pris de la maison, jolie fille,
En promettant de me soigner, garde-donc ça tu fais, chère

Oh, observe-moi bien, joli cœur,
Tu vas avoir, ouais, pitié, moi tout seul dans la misère,
Tu m'as pris de la maison, jolie fille,
Tes bons parents qui m'a fait donc quitter de la maison.

Oh, j'ai p'us d'espoir, chère,
J'ai d'espoir t'en aller en virant le dos pour la vie,
Tu m'as dit, chère, tu voulais la promesse,
De bien te soigner tous les deux, bonne ‘tite fille, jusqu'à la mort.

Many of Joe's tunes had no titles by the time he entered the studio.  Executives persuaded him to make up names on the spot, either after family or towns he was familiar with.   Entitled "Poche Town" (#40506) in 1929, it was an old Cajun melody. Today, the area referred to as Poche Town (pronounced "poh-shay") is a rural section, north of the railroad tracks in Sulpher, Louisiana.  The area is named after George Simeon Portie, Sr.son of Oscar and Corrina Elender Portie, who moved here in 1902 from Hackberry, Louisiana.2

Adolph "Bixy" Guidry in 1929 did the same with his tune "Waltz Of The Long Wood" with Percy Babineaux for Bluebird Records.  Several of Joe's songs influenced Leo Soileau, including this one entitled "Promise Me".  The song also has some similarities to the Chuck Guillory's "Tolan Waltz", "La Valse De Grand Bois", Shirley Bergeron's "La Valse De La Belle", Blackie Forestier's "Crying Waltz" and The Veteran Playboys' "La Valse De La Belle".  

Oh, promise me, pretty sweetheart,
You will never forget me when you took, yes, your heart (away),
You took me away from home, pretty girl,
Promising to take care of me, so look what you've done, dear.

Oh, pay attention well, pretty sweetheart,
You'll have, yeah, pity, I'm all alone in misery,
You took me away from home, pretty girl, 
Your good parents who made me leave home. 

Oh, I'm hoping, dear,
I have hoped you'll go turn back forever,
You told me, dear, you wanted the promise,
Of taking good care of both of us, good girl, until you die.

The accordion-fiddle combination reigned at dances and on phonograph records until about 1935, when the slicker sounds of the hillbilly string bands and, soon, Western swing came rushing into the French-speaking parishes.   

  3. Lyrics by Stephane F and Jordy A

Release Info:
W110552-2 Poche Town | Columbia 40506-F Okeh 90006
W110553-2 Osson | Columbia 40506-F Okeh 90006

Louisiana Cajun Music Volume 1: First Recordings - The 1920's (Old Timey, 1970)
Cajun, Vol. 1: Abbeville Breakdown 1929-1939 (Sony/Columbia, 1990)
Cajun Origins (Catfish, 2001)
Baby, How Can It Be? (Songs of Love, Lust and Contempt from the 1920s and ‘30s) (Dust To Digital, 2010)
The Perfect Roots & Blues Collection (Sony, 2015)

Monday, June 11, 2018

"One Step A Cain" - Angelas Lejeune

Angelas LeJeune, who was great-uncle of Iry LeJeune from the Point Noire area near Church Point and known to the community as Nonc Jack, won an accordion contest in Opelousas in 1929. First prize was a trip to New Orleans to record with legendary fiddlers Denus McGee and Ernest Fruge.  While there, he recorded a fast-paced instrumental that would later become the well-known "Crowley Two Step" made popular by Aldus Roger.

The Vocalion session in New Orleans that fall was an iconic one, featuring some of the most influential of early Cajun artists such as Moise Robin, Ernest Fruge, Douglas Bellard, Leo Soileau and Dennis McGee.  Many of them would later play dances with each other.

Angelas Lejeune

Dennis joined Angelas and others after sharecropping for years:
When I stopped playing music, I stayed a long time without playing again.  I don't know why, I was just tired of all that.  I didn't enjoy playing any more.  I worked in the fields. I couldn't work hard in the fields all day and play all night.  Then, I decided that I was tired of that and I started playing the fiddle again.  That's when I started playing with Amede Ardoin and Angelas Lejeune and Ernest Fruge.1  

In 1934, Amede Breaux re-titled the song as "Le One Step A Martin", adding a handful of lyrics to the tune.  Angelas' song would live on, reinvented around 1962 by Aldus Roger.   Not to be confused with the Doc Guidry recording of the same title, the "Crowley Two Step" would become the staple of Aldus' TV performances on KLFY, often heard as the first song during the show's opening.

  1. Cajun and Creole Music Makers By Barry Jean Ancelet
  2. Photo by Ryan E
Release Info:
NO-6715 One Step A Cain | Brunswick 530
NO-6716 La Valse Du Texas | Brunswick 530

Let Me Play This For You: Rare Cajun Recordings (Tompkins, 2013)

Monday, June 4, 2018

"Rayne Breakdown" - Happy Fats

The early years of Leroy "Happy Fats" Leblanc's career can be summed up by his first music teacher, Eva McBride of Rayne, Louisiana. Eva brought her musical talents with her to Rayne when she married Walter J. McBride, and was at McBride's Pharmacy to "encourage the arts" at every opportunity.   At the left, far corner was an array of musical instruments from which families in Rayne purchased everything from clarinets and flutes to the smaller horns. She believed a family didn't just buy an instrument for a youngster, Eva was there to give "first lesson" on any instrument in the store.1

But the one instrument that had "intrigued" young soda-jerk and shoeshine boy, Happy Fats, was this guitar, which McBride always "strummed" at her every visit to the store. Happy would build up his courage one day to ask if "Miss Eva" might teach him " a chord or two" on the guitar.   After he paid for the guitar with a sack of rough rice given to him by his mother, who worked a the local mill, it began Happy Fats' musical career.1
Eric Arceneaux, Louis Arceneaux, Happy Fats
1936 Blue Goose Dancehall2

By 1935, he formed his group and kicked off his string-band recording career with "Rayne Breakdown" in New Orleans for Bluebird Records.  It was an old traditional melody made famous by Angelas Lejuene known as "Perrodin Two Step".  His group had Warnes Schexnayder on guitar and Norris Savoy on fiddle.  Happy played his guitar on street corners up and down Adams Avenue, formed his Rayne-Bo Ramblers, performed at the Louisiana Hayride and the Grand Ole Opry.   He published music in both English and French and associated with the likes of Tex Ritter, Hank Williams, and Louisiana's Jimmie Davis.1  

  1. Plan Of Rayne by Sidney Stutes.  Rayne Tribune. 2014.
  2. Rayne's People and Places By Tony Olinger
Release Info:
BS-94404-1 Rayne Breakdown | Bluebird B-2176-A
BS-94405-1 Dor, Baby, Dor | Bluebird B-2176-B

Cajun Country, Vol. 2, More Hits from the Swamp (JSP, 2005)
Cajun Capers: Cajun Music 1928-1954 (Proper, 2005)

Wednesday, May 30, 2018

"Madame Young Donnez Moi Votre Plus Jolie Blonde (Madame Young Give Me Your Sweetheart)" - Dennis Mcgee and Sady Courville

Composer, vocalist, and fiddler, Dennis McGee was one of the earliest recorded Cajun musicians.  In the 1920s and 30s, he played and recorded alongside black Creole accordionist Amede Ardoin as well as fellow fiddler and brother-in-law Sady Courville.  He received his first fiddle from a cousin and within six months was playing for house parties throughout southwest Louisiana.6  In 1929, Mcgee and Courville recorded eight sides for the Vocalion label at the St. Charles Hotel.   Among his recordings is the classic "Madame Young Donnez Moi Votre Plus Jolie Blonde (Madame Young Give Me Your Sweetheart)" (#5319), which borrowed the tune of the popular Cajun song "Allons Danser Colinda."  Considered a "valse à deux temps", accordion player Joe Falcon recalled the tune from his early days:
"Allons danser Colina"-- I knew that tune since I was a little boy.  I played it many times. That 'Colinda', that's what the old folks call a 'two-step waltz'.  I had one of my musicians say that there wasn't no such thing as that.  I said "Hold it, brother.  I'm older than you".  He said "There ain't no such thing as a two-step waltz. What number could it be?"  I said, "Allons danser Colina." That's a two-step waltz from old times.7  

Ouais, donc ouais , Madame Young, donnez-moi la vot' chère blonde,

Le voudrais malheureuse avec, mais ouais, malheureuse,

Mais ouais, oh ouais, mais l’avoir, l’avoir, oh ouais, la grosse blonde,
Pour moi finir mes grands jours avant tu pars, malheureuse.

Ouais, donc ouais, Madame Young, comment ça s’fait d’refuser,
Pas miserait de m’marier, ah ouais, j’irais l’après, ouais,
Ouais, mais ouais, de l’avoir avec la chère ma grosse blonde,
C’est pour moi finir mes grands jours, toujours avec la chère blonde.

Depuis quand elle etait ‘tite, j’avais chéri la chère blonde,
Je su’ après la guetter, oh ouais, la chère petite blonde,
Je desirais que ça s’rait elle dirait "Ouais" à mon idée,
D’avoir la chère, mais, grosse blonde pour, ouais, finir mes grande jour.

C’est pas quelle est si belle, mais, el’est si bonne et aimable,
La chère 'tite blonde, j’l’aime rais dans tout, mais, chère mon gros cœur,
Oh oui, 'garde-donc cheri cœur, mais, fait pas ça ‘vec ton nègre,
Tu vas me faire, mais, mourir pour toi toujours, malheureuse.

Dennis McGee and Sady Courville
Courville has noted that his name was not included on the record label because he was afraid his friends would laugh at him.  One one song came out with his name on the label.  The others said "second fiddle." 

According to author and music producer Chris King:
The irresistible charmer Dennis McGee played this song for Madame Ulysses Young, his first wife’s mother, in order to gain the hand of young Marie. McGee was one of the rare artists that could produce a pleading agony and a desperate longing from both his fiddle and his singing.5

It's based on an old African religious song.  It was forbidden to be danced because of it's association with voodoo.  The "Calinda" is understood to be a scandalous dance. Because of its purportedly lascivious nature, many slave owners forbade their slaves from dancing the Calinda, tied to voodoo-sexual rituals. Tracing the dance backward through time, the Calinda arrived in Louisiana from the Caribbean. It had earlier arrived in the Caribbean from Africa. And, ironically, from there, the dance possibly traces its origins back to Europe and to a troubadour from the Provence region of France.  Thus, while the Cajuns left western France and made their way from the North Atlantic to Acadie and later to Louisiana, the source material for "Colinda" traveled from the south of France, through Africa, across the South Atlantic, to the Caribbean, and finally to Louisiana.

Yeah, so yeah, Mrs. Young, give me your dear blonde,

I'd like that, oh my, well yeah, oh my,

Well yeah, oh yeah, well to have her, to have her oh yeah, the big blonde,
With me for the rest of my days, before you leave, oh my.

Yeah, so yeah, Mrs. Young, how can you refuse me?
Don't bet on marrying me, ah yeah, I'll go get her, yeah,
Yeah, well yeah, to have the dear big blonde,
With me for the rest of my days, always with the dear blonde.

Since she was little, I've cherished the dear blonde,
I'm watching for her, oh yeah, the dear little blonde,
I would like if she said "Yes" to my idea,
To have the dear, well, big blonde for, well, the rest of my days.

It's not that she's so beautiful, but, she's so good and kind,
The dear little blonde, I'd love her with all my heart,
Oh yeah, so look dear sweetheart, well, don't do that to your man,
You'll make me die for you, forever, oh my.

By 1947, Happy Fats and Doc Guidry would re-work the song into the common use title "Allons Danser Colinda".  McGee influenced younger generations of Cajun musicians, and shortly before his death was named Honorary Dean of Cajun Music by the University of Southwestern Louisiana (now the University of Louisiana at Lafayette).6   

  1. Louisiana Fiddlers By Ron Yule
  3. Do Not Sell At Any Price: The Wild, Obsessive Hunt for the World's Rarest ... By Amanda Petrusich
  4. Cajun Breakdown: The Emergence of an American-Made Music By Ryan Andre Brasseaux
  6. Louisiana Rocks!: The True Genesis of Rock and Roll edited by Tom Aswell
  7. Swamp Pop: Cajun and Creole Rhythm and Blues By Shane K. Bernard
  8. Lyrics by Raymond F
Release Info:
NO-108 Madame Young Donnez Moi Votre Plus Jolie Blonde (Madame Young Give Me Your Sweetheart) | Vocalion 5319
NO-109 Mon Chere Bebe Creole (My Creole Sweet Mama) | Vocalion 5319

Louisiana Cajun Music Vol. 5: The Early Years 1928-1938 (Old Timey/Arhoolie, 1973)
The Complete Early Recordings of Dennis McGee (Yazoo, 1994)
Cajun Louisiane 1928-1939 (Fremeaux, 2003)
Aimer Et Perdre: To Love & To Lose Songs, 1917-1934 (Tompkins Square, 2012)
The Very Best of Cajun: La Stomp Creole, Vol. 1 (Viper, 2016)

Thursday, May 24, 2018

"Demain C'est Pas Dimanche" - Moise Robin & Leo Soileau

Courtesy of Chris Strachwitz
"Tomorrow Is Not Sunday". It was Leo Soileau and Moise Robin's version of the old Creole song known as "Adieu Rosa".  While Robin and Soileau were lined up to record the melody, they met Douglas Bellard there at the studio in New Orleans in October of 1929.  Bellard would take the melody and shape it into his "Mon Camon La Case Que Je Suis Cordane", more commonly known as "Les Flammes D'enfer". Dennis McGee and Ernest Fruge were also in the studio that day and the duo reworked the melody, using the original title "Adieu Rosa".  Robin, recalls:

When I went over there, the last time I made a record in New Orleans with Leo Soileau, Angelas Lejeune, he made Bayou Pon Pon and I was there when he made Bayou Pon Pon. And there was a black [man], he made a record, Les Flammes D'enfer. I remember all these players.1

Moise Robin

Merci Bon Dieu, demain ç'est pas dimanche,
Bon Dieu connaît, demain ç'est pas dimanche,
Tonnerre m'écrase, demain ç'est pas dimanche,
Merci Bon Dieu.

Tonnere m'écrase, demain ç'est pas dimanche,
Bon Dieu connaît, mais, ça ç'est pas ma femme.

Bon Dieu connaît, Corine ç'est pas ma femme,
Merci Bon Dieu, Corine ç'est pas ma femme.

Adieu, Rosa, yaille, adieu, Rosa,
J'aurais l'malheure, "Lord",
Adieu Rosa.

Merci Bon Dieu, demain ç'est pas dimanche,
Bon Dieu connaît, demain ç'est pas dimanche,
Tonnerre m'écrase, Corine ç'est pas ma femme.

J'aurais l'malheure, j'aurais l'malheure.

Adieu, Rosa, yaille, adieu, Rosa,
Bon Dieu connaît, demain ç'est pas dimanche,
Merci Bon Dieu.

Adieu, Rosa, yaille, adieu, Rosa,
Tonnerre m'écrase, Corine ç'est pas ma femme,
Merci Bon Dieu, Rosa ç'est pas ma femme.
Leo Soileau

They took Bellard's melody and made it into their own rendition entitled "Demain C'est Pas Dimanche" (#15845). It was a familiar melody that influenced other songs such as Joe Falcon's "Acadian One Step", Angelas Lejeune's "Madame Donnez Moi Les" and Bixy Guidry's "Ella A Plurer Pour Revenir".  Leo would rework the song in the 1930s as "Petit Ou Gros", made famous by Joe Bonsall in the 1960s.  

Many people criticized Leo for his poor usage of the French language. Even some believed Moise to be on vocals, thanking God it wasn't Sunday and that his lover wasn't his wife. When the local priest found out Moise, the son of Joe Robin, might be the vocalist, he was angry:
It was Leo that made that record and I was playing with him. Father LaChapel, the priest of Leonville, heard that particular record.   He asked "Who sang that? Who made that record?" Arthur Stelly of Leonville said "It's Moise Robin." The priest said, "Moise Robin? C'est le bourriquet à Joe Robin". (It's Joe Robin's jackass). They accused me.2  

Thank the good Lord, tomorrow isn't Sunday,
Good Lord knows, tomorrow isn't Sunday,
May the thunder crush me, tomorrow isn't Sunday,
Thank the good Lord.

May the thunder crush me, tomorrow isn't Sunday,
Good Lord knows, well, that it's not my wife.

Good Lord knows, Corine is not my wife,
Thank the good Lord, Corine is not my wife.

Bye, Rosa, oh my, bye, Rosa,
I'd be so unlucky, Lord,
Bye Rosa.

Thank the good Lord, tomorrow isn't Sunday,
Good Lord knows, tomorrow isn't Sunday,
May the thunder crush me, Corine is not my wife.

I'd be so unlucky, I'd be so unlucky.

Bye, Rosa, oh my, bye, Rosa,
Good Lord knows, tomorrow isn't Sunday,
Thank the good Lord.

Bye, Rosa, oh my, bye, Rosa,
May the thunder crush me, Corine is not my wife,
Thank the good Lord, Rosa is not my wife.

Over time, "Adieu Rosa" and similar songs would become the well known "Les Flammes D'Enfer". Musician Wade Fruge, influenced by Bellard, discusses the song's origin and a story:
I learned what they call "Les Flammes d'Enfer" from a black fiddle player [Douglas Bellard].  It's a copy of another song called "Adieu, Rosa".  He'd play it in a one step, not a two step like people play it today. Today, it's played faster.

  2. Ye Yaille Chere by Raymond Francois
  3. Picture by Chris Strachwitz
  4. Lyrics by Raymond F

Release Info:
NO261 La Valse À Moreau | Vocalion 15845
NO262 Demain C'est Pas Dimanche | Vocalion 15845

Leo Soileau: Louisiana Cajun Music Vol. 7 (Old Timey, 1982)
Cajun Louisiane 1928-1939 (Fremeaux, 2003)
The Early Recordings of Leo Soileau (Yazoo, 2006)

Friday, May 18, 2018

"Anuiant Et Bleu" - Roy Gonzales

In the summer of 1929, Opelousas jewelry store owner, Frank Dietlein2 negotiated a recording deal for Leo Soileau and Paramount Records.   Crowley native Roy Gonzales, who sang French interpretations of Jimmie Rodgers songs, went along for the ride with an old four-string guitar.  Paramount expected them to perform, having invested $700 to transport them on a fast mail train to Indiana.1  

When Gonzales arrived at the studios in July of 1929, he had a change of heart and pleaded with the producers not to record.  The record executives insisted , and the Louisiananian produced six Cajun adaptations of tunes popularized by Jimmie Rodgers, including "Anuiant Et Bleu" (#1456), better known as "Lonely and Blue".1  

Ennuyé et bleu, et mon coeur cassé, 

Personne pour me contenter, chère,
Tu m'as laissé seul, t'as parti chez toi, 
Pourquoi tu voyages, ma chère fille? 

T'as promis toi t'étais juste pour moi, 
Et toi et moi t'aurais jamais laissé,
Tu m'as pas écouté, tu m'as laissé, 
Peut être un jour tu viendras. 

Tu crois tu saurais je m'ennuie de toi, 
Que moi je t'aime pour toujours,
Peut être tu dirais "Un jour je m'en reviendrai",
Mais, j'ai laissé seul chez toi, chère.

T'as promis (que) t'aurais été que pour moi,
Et toi et moi t'aurais jamais laissé,
Tu m'as pas écouté et tu m'as laissé,
Peut être un jour tu reviendras. 

Gonzales approached the microphone, four-stringed guitar in hand and proceeded to strum through several familiar Rodgers-styled blues. The accomplished vocalist confidently swung his warm vibrato-laden baritone through the material, embellishing his vocal with yodeling.1  

Lonely and blue, and my heart is broken,

Noone to make me happy, dear,
You left me alone, you went back home,
Why did you roam, my dear girl?

You promised you were just for me,
And you'd never leave me,
You didn't listen, you left me,
Maybe one day you will return.

You think you know that I will miss you,
That I'll love you forever,
Maybe you would say, "Someday I'll return"
Well, I left your house alone, dear.

You promised me you would have been only for me,
And you, you'd never leave me,
You did not listen to me and you left me,
Maybe one day you'll come back.

At the same session, Roy also sang a variation of Jimmie Rodgers' "Blue Yodel" entitled "Choctaw Beer Blues".   It was a tune that he recorded earlier with John Bertrand, but it ended up becoming un-issued by Paramount.  Named after the famed beer of Oklahoma's native Americans, a portion of the song was attributed to orchestra band leader and neighbor, Joe Rivet.    Rivet was a trumpeter from Iberville Parish, and traveled with his band in places such as New Orleans, Shreveport, Lake Charles, Lafayette, and spots in east Texas such as Port Arthur, Longview, and Nacogdoches.5  After playing in Herman Scallan's group in the 1920s, he formed his own group.  Even Harry James' saxophonist and trumpeter Claude Lakey filled in.4   Roy joined his group playing drums and eventually they settled in Alexandria.  Known as Joe Rivet and his Castle Garden band, you could catch their show billed as "Swing and Sweat with Joe Rivet".3   Gonzales and Rivet remained playing until the 1950s. 
Rayne Tribune
Jul 26, 1935

If you're from Mobile, what are you doing down here,

If you're from Mobile, baby what you doing down here,

I'm just messing around, drinking good ole Choctaw beer.


I'm going up the country, but I sure can't take you,

I'm going up the country, but I sure can't take you,

There's nothing up there that an ugly woman can do.

Now, a dog run a rabbit, he run for a thousand miles,
Boy, a dog run a rabbit, run it for a thousand miles,
A rabbit broke down and busted our good time.

There's one thing in this world, I can't understand,
Well there's one thing in this world, baby I can't understand,
It's why an ugly woman always picks a bow-legged man.

Now, blues and trouble, they ramble hand in hand,
Oh, blues and trouble, they ramble hand in hand,
You ain't never had no trouble till you marry a no-good man.

Anuiant Et Bleu

Choctaw Beer Blues

  1. Cajun Breakdown: The Emergence of an American-Made Music By Ryan Andre Brasseaux
  2. NOTE: In Tony Russell's Paramount liner notes, he makes no mention of Frank Dietlein.  Instead, he mentions Winter Lemoine of Opelousas as the agent in which Gonzales contacted Paramount
  3. The Town Talk from Alexandria, Louisiana. January 1, 1987.
  5. Longview News. February 13, 1933.
  6. Lyrics by Stephane F, Jerry M and Jeremy R
  7. Photos by John T

Release Info:
G-15353-A Anuiant Et Bleu | Paramount 12832
G-15354-A Choctaw Beer Blues | Paramount 12832

Paramount Old Time Recordings, CD B (JSP, 2006)
The Rise & Fall of Paramount Records: Volume Two, 1928-1932, CD G (Third Man, 2014)